Data storage is a science that has progressed in enormous leaps and bounds. Today flash drives, tiny thumb-sized memory tools, can hold more data than entire computers could ten years ago.
More and more flash drives are being produced using “monolithic” designs, and this is a step that has both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to flash disk data recovery.
Monolithic flash drive construction was pioneered as a way to further shrink flash drives by compacting their components into a smaller, more durable package.
Rather than being mounted on a circuit board and inserted into a case, the components of monolithic drives are cast into a single silicon chip.
Monolithic construction makes flash drives lighter, cheaper, and (in certain cases) more durable. By minimizing the amount of extra equipment required, monolithic drives can be smaller than their traditional competitors.
At this point, the factor limiting the size of the drive is the USB connector itself; many monolithic flash drives are small enough to fit on a keychain.
The crucial disadvantage of monolithic flash drives is that they have given up the traditional integrated circuit format for their NAND chips.
Instead of a consistent, industry-wide connection system that would make the drive’s memory interchangeable with any properly-formatted socket, the memory in monolithic drives is wedded very permanently to the USB components present in the drive.
Because they have surrendered standard connection formats, monolithic flash drives are very difficult to recover data from. When a traditional flash drive is damaged, data recovery is often simply a matter of snapping out its memory chips and plugging them into the sockets on a fresh drive.
This is not possible with a monolithic drive. Recovering data from these drives is difficult, time-consuming, and expensive.
Monolithic flash drives are ideally suited for use in situations where size is at an absolute premium and data safety is not a high priority. They are convenient and eminently transportable, but the difficulties in recovering data from them when they are damaged make them unsuitable for storing critical information.
In 1984, engineers at Toshiba developed a method of significantly improving the read and write speeds of transistor-based ROM chips. They dubbed this new technology “flash” memory because of the speed and ease with which it could be erased and rewritten.
Over many years of development, flash memory has become an industry-wide standard for cheap, relatively permanent data storage.
From its earliest days, flash memory was created in two very different “flavors:” NOR and NAND. Each type of memory uses different logical principles to store and retrieve data. NOR memory allows for random byte access, making it an ideal replacement for ROM.
In NAND memory, transistors can be packed more densely into a given volume, but the ability to instantly access information byte-by-byte is lost.
NAND flash memory proved to be ideal for long-term storage, and it quickly became the defacto standard for flash-based drives. Consistent improvements in fabrication technology allowed NAND memory chips to store more and more information, with storage sizes currently pushing towards 1 TB.
NAND memory chips follow industry-standard layouts for integrated circuits (such as TSOP48 or BGA) that provide consistent pinouts. (i.e. connection points.)
To create a usable drive out of NAND flash memory, a few vital components have to be added to the memory chip itself. The drive requires a standard USB plug and a USB controller to connect to a computer. A crystal oscillator gives the drive a consistent 12 MHz clock signal. These pieces are mounted on an ordinary circuit board and encased in a durable cover.
The capacity of NAND flash memory expanded so rapidly that single flash drives were soon incorporating multiple memory chips. Eventually it was the other components described above, not the flash memory itself, which were limiting the overall size of the flash drive.
At the same time, the fragility of the connections between the memory chips and the USP components was reducing the durability of flash drives.